Constructivism involves learner’s activation of several cognitive processes such as paying attention and selecting relevant information, organizing information and integrating incoming information with existing knowledge. Cognitive constructivism is a system of exploration of how learners, as individuals, adapt and refine knowledge. In contrast to cognitive constructivism, social constructivism views knowledge as primarily a cultural product. Cognitive constructivism focuses on the internal structure of concepts, whereas social constructivism focuses on the context of their acquisition. Constructivist learning pose four dilemmas (1) Conceptual, (2) Pedagogical, (3) Cultural and (4) Political. There is another fundamental issue relavent in constructivism that the understanding of students emerging from constructivist instruction is not compatible with the evaluation system in place. However, Goodlad reported an extraordinary sameness of learning environment that is prevalent in most of the schools. Thus, the constructivist classroom transactions and evaluation procedures are far more complicated than proposed by educationists.

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